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Review

Scorpion toxins targeting Kv1.3 channels: insights into immunosuppression

Isadora S Oliveira, Isabela G Ferreira, Gabriel M Alexandre-Silva, Felipe A Cerni, Caroline M Cremonez, Eliane C Arantes, Umberto Zottich and Manuela B Pucca

J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis, 2019 25: e148118
Received: 30 July 2018 | Accepted: 17 October 2018 | Published online: 15 April 2019
Collection: Discovering candidate molecules from animal toxins with potential application in biotechnology
https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-1481-18

Abstract

Scorpion venoms are natural sources of molecules that have, in addition to their toxic function, potential therapeutic applications. In this source the neurotoxins can be found especially those that act on potassium channels. Potassium channels are responsible for maintaining the membrane potential in the excitable cells, especially the voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv), including Kv1.3 channels. These channels (Kv1.3) are expressed by various types of tissues and cells, being part of several physiological processes. However, the major studies of Kv1.3 are performed on T cells due its importance on autoimmune diseases. Scorpion toxins capable of acting on potassium channels (KTx), mainly on Kv1.3 channels, have gained a prominent role for their possible ability to control inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Some of these toxins have already left bench trials and are being evaluated in clinical trials, presenting great therapeutic potential. Thus, scorpion toxins are important natural molecules that should not be overlooked in the treatment of autoimmune and other diseases.

 

Keywords: Voltage-gated potassium channels, Kv1.3, scorpion toxins, KTx, Immunosuppression

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